Buckhave et al have some interesting results from a longitudinal study of 119 patients with AD. At baseline, CSF levels of the microtubule-associated tau protein was significantly higher in both AD cohorts (693±301 nanograms per liter and 663±308 ng/l) than in the control group (412±232 ng/l). Additionally, baseline CSF levels of beta amyloid were lower in both AD cohorts (275±103 ng/l and 288±103 ng/l) as opposed to the baseline control group (659±179 ng/l). At a two year follow up, CSF levels of tau protein had increased in both of the AD cohorts and decreased slightly in the control group, although the divergence was only significant in one of the AD cohorts. These seem like they would both be good markers for clinical trials to test the efficacy of AD treatments.
Buchhave P, Blennow K, Zetterberg H, Stomrud E, Londos E, et al. (2009) Longitudinal Study of CSF Biomarkers in Patients with Alzheimer’s Disease. PLoS ONE 4(7): e6294. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0006294.